Mobile Ad-hoc networks extend communications beyond the limit of infrastructure based networks. Future wireless applications will take advantage of rapidly deployable, self-configuring multi-hop mobile Ad-hoc networks. In order to provide robust performance in mobile Ad-hoc networks and hence cope with dynamic path loss conditions, it is apparent that research and development of energy efficient geographic routing protocols is of great importance. Therefore various mobile Ad-hoc routing protocols have been studied for their different approaches. Forwarding strategies for geographic routing protocols are discussed and there is a particular focus on the pass loss model used by those routing protocols, the restriction and disadvantage of using such path loss model is then discussed. A novel geographic routing protocol which incorporates both the link quality and relay node location information has been developed to determine an energy efficient route from source to destination. The concepts of a gain region and a relay region to minimize the energy consumption have been proposed to define the area in where the candidate relay nodes will be selected with the minimized hop count. The signalling overhead required by the protocol has been analyzed in various scenarios with different traffic load, node densities and network sizes. Discrete event simulation models are therefore developed to capture the behaviour and characteristics of the operation of the developed routing protocol under different path loss conditions and network scenarios. A non-free space path loss model has been developed with a random loss between the nodes to simulate a realistic path loss scenario in the network. An enhanced signalling process has been designed in order to achieve advanced routing information exchange and assist routing determination. Comparison of simulated characteristics demonstrates the significant improvement of the new routing protocol because of its novel features, the gain region to ensure the deductiono f the energyc onsumptiont,h e relay region to ensuret he forward progress to the destination and hence maintain an optimised hop count. The simulation results showed that the energy consumption under the operation of the developed protocol is 30% of that with a conventionagl eographicarl outing protocol.
Department of Computing and Communication TechnologiesFaculty of Technology, Design and Environment
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