Journal Article

Net energy analysis must not compare apples and oranges


Energy return on investment (EROI) is a critical measure of the comparative utility of different energy carriers including fossil fuels and renewables. However it must not be used to compare carriers that cannot be put to similar end-use. Additionally, combining carriers to arrive at estimates of ‘average’ or ‘minimum’ EROIs can be problematic.

Attached files


Raugei, Marco

Oxford Brookes departments

Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment\School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics


Year of publication: 2019
Date of RADAR deposit: 2019-02-08

Copyright © 2019, Springer Nature. "Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full conditions of use. Any further use is subject to permission from Springer Nature."

Related resources

This RADAR resource is the Accepted Manuscript of Net energy analysis must not compare apples and oranges


  • Owner: Joseph Ripp
  • Collection: Outputs
  • Version: 1 (show all)
  • Status: Live