Smith, J. and Smith, S.
(2016) 'The Constraint-Effects-Mitigation Involvement Loyalty Model: An Integrative Review', Leisure Sciences, 39
This systematic review deliberately included studies with diverse methodologies in order to establish the general applicability of a constraint-effects-mitigation involvement loyalty model, a status which has only been indirectly accorded to it within the literature to date. Studies conducted between 1987 and the present covering 27 papers in several different settings consistently demonstrated that leisure involvement can necessitate negotiation strategies to allow individuals to form loyalty to people, leisure activities and places, whilst still facing a myriad of constraints at any given time.
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