1. Introduction to reflection
  2. Brookfield's lenses
  3. Lens one: autobiographical experiences of teaching and learning
  4. Lens two: learners' eyes
  5. Lens three: our colleagues' eyes
  6. Lens four: the critical literature
  7. Further resources to support reflective practice in teaching and learning

Brookfield's lens four: the critical literature

The fourth and final lens refers to the place of the scholarly literature as a reliable mirror to hold up against our every day teaching practices. Brookfield (2005) suggests that the scholarly literature in relation to teaching and learning can make an effective substitute for a critical friend. We have included some further resources to exemplify this .This includes text based emprical evidence and theoretical perspectives. You are encouraged to go and explore these for yourself.

It is hoped that you find all of these examples useful and that you feel motivated to read further about the Brookfieldfour critical lenses. You may wish to adapt the model or even create your own. As individuals you will have your own take on reflection and it is not suggested that the Brookfield model is in any way definitive. It is hoped that you feel enabled to share your perspectives on reflection. There is a discussion forum on reflective practice , please feel free to post your thoughts and any resources on reflective practice of your own.


Brookfield, S. (2005) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco. Jossey Bass.

Gibbs, G. Farmer, B & Eastcott, D(1988) Learning by Doing. A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Birmingham Polytechnic

Kolb, D. A. (1984) Experential Learning. Experience as a Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey. Prentice Hall.

Polyani, M. (1958) Personal Knowledge. London. Routledge and Keegan Paul In: Bulman, C & Schutz, S. (2008)Reflective Practice in Nursing. Oxford. Wiley-Blackwell

Poyani, M. (1967) The Tacit Dimension. New York. Doubleday In: Bulman, C & Schutz, S. (2008) Reflective Practice in Nursing. Oxford. Wiley-Blackwell.