Journal Article

Nurses' experiences of racism in mental health settings through patient and family interactions : a systematic review


Nursing staff engage readily with patients and associates in mental health/forensic inpatient settings. These settings are known to have instances of workplace violence directed towards staff and such violence includes racism. Racism is a form of workplace violence that must be better understood and supported within this complex setting. Completing a systematic review to coalesce preexisting research and suggested interventions can be beneficial to supporting nurses. Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. CINAHL, PsycInfo, Medline, British Nursing Database and Web of Science databases were searched. Reviewers screened the papers for inclusion (29 articles out of 7146 were selected for inclusion) and completed the quality appraisal using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Subsequently, data extraction was completed, and findings were summarised through narrative synthesis. The way racism was conceptualised impacted how data was collected, reported and interpreted; racism was silenced or exposed depending on how studies were undertaken. If exposed, evidence indicates racism is a problem but is not always acknowledged or acted upon. Some evidence determined racism led to negative work-related outcomes. The literature provided limited examples of interventions. These included changing education/orientation for staff, openly discussing racist events and better planning for patients among colleagues and management. Increasing diversity within the workforce requires more research exploring and addressing issues related to racism towards nurses. Narratives of racism being normalised and embedded in mental health/forensic settings need to be challenged.

Attached files


Wijayaratnam, Anuson
Kozlowska, Olga
Krayem, Amani
Kaur, Satinder
Ayres, Helen
Smith, Rebecca
Paterson, Jane
Moghabghab, Rola
Henshall, Cathy

Oxford Brookes departments

Department of Nursing


Year of publication: 2024
Date of RADAR deposit: 2024-02-27

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

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