Thesis (Ph.D)

Human Security in a Post-conflict Livelihoods Change Context: Case of Buni Yadi Northeast Nigeria


This study investigates the extent to which post-conflict livelihoods change may contribute to conflict recurrence and a threat to human security. Post-conflict livelihoods studies (e.g. Jacobson 2002, 2005; Karf 2003; Werker 2007; Porter et al. 2008; Amirthalingam and Lakshman 2009, 2010) have for too long focused on refugee and internally displaced person camp settings. Justino (2009; 2011a; 2012) however, argues that these are inadequate in providing sustainable post-conflict peace not only because of the restricted focus on refugees but failure to address the fundamental livelihoods changes and the specific implications. This study examines the nature of livelihoods changes in a post-conflict transition non-camp context. It draws on Justino to adapt then use the sustainable livelihoods framework for the analysis of post-conflict livelihoods changes as a possible precursor for conflict recurrence in a non-camp setting. The study utilises a case study design, Buni Yadi, North-east Nigeria for an empirical investigation of a post-conflict scenario. It employs a mixed methods approach combining quantitative surveys, observations and in-depth discussions with men and women whose livelihoods have been disrupted following the Boko Haram insurgency to analyse post-conflict predicaments. The outcomes of the empirical investigation suggest heterogeneity in the livelihoods changes. Although they are mainly negative, evidence of positive resilience for the youths and women groups is observed. The study also found that post-conflict vulnerabilities are similar for camp and non-camp contexts in that the livelihoods experiences in the non-camp are mostly the extension of the camp conditions. However, while the livelihoods vulnerabilities in the camp contexts relate to legal, administrative, movement and economic restrictions, the existence of these challenges for the non-camp setting are insignificant. Instead, it is chronic post-conflict livelihoods deficiencies that are critical. The research concludes that the conflict-induced livelihoods changes may be instrumental in conflict recurrence given the deteriorating resilience and weak post-conflict living conditions which expose individuals, groups and the community to the vulnerability that may be exploited to instigate another round of conflict. This research confirms the consideration that while interaction of unresolved pre-conflict challenges and the post-conflict living conditions (Walter 2004; Kreutz 2010; Hegre et al. 2011; Kantiok 2014) are essential, post-conflict livelihoods change whose vulnerability may be exploited by insurgents is a critical condition for conflict recurrence. The theoretical contribution of this research improves the analytical depth and application of the livelihoods framework to evaluate post-conflict context, while the empirical and methodological advancement is valuable for post-conflict recovery and development intervention and practice.

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Lawal, Lukman Ahmed


Supervisors: Mbiba, Beacon; Wood, Graham

Oxford Brookes departments

School of the Built Environment
Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment


Year: 2019


Federal Government of Nigeria : Grant
Petroleum Technology Development Fund : Scholarship

© Lawal, Lukman Ahmed
Published by Oxford Brookes University
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