The protection of human rights depends upon the principles of the inherent dignity and equality of all human beings and it is the obligation of all Member states of the United Nations to take effective measure to promote universal respect and fundamental freedom for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. In some countries where religion plays a prominent role, there are tendencies to protect the dominant or state religion from blasphemy as is the case in many Muslim countries including Pakistan, Indonesia, Nigeria etc. According to a study published in 2011 by PEW research centre, 59 countries prohibited the conduct of blasphemy as of mid-2009, where 44 of them enforced the laws.
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