Movement, which draws on motor skills and executive functions for managing them, plays an important role in literacy learning (e.g., movement of mouth during oral reading and movement of hand and fingers during writing); but relatively little research has focused on movement skills in students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) as the current study did. Parents completed normed Movement Assessment Battery for Children Checklist - 2nd edition (ABC-2), ratings and their children in grades 4 to 9 (M=11 years, 11 months; 94 boys, 61 girls) completed diagnostic assessment used to assign them to diagnostic groups: control typical language learning (N=42), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting) (N=29), dyslexia (impaired word decoding/reading and spelling) (N=65), or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax in oral and written language) (N=19). The research aims were to (a) correlate the Movement ABC-2 parent ratings for Scale A Static/ Predictable Environment (15 items) and Scale B Dynamic/ Unpredictable Environment (15 items) with reading and writing achievement in total sample varying within and across different skills; and (b) compare each SLD group with the control group on Movement ABC-2 parent ratings for Scale A, Scale B, and Scale C Movement-Related (Non-Motor Executive Functions, or Self-Efficacy, or Affect) (13 items). At least one Movement ABC-2 parent rating was correlated with each assessed literacy achievement skill. Each of three SLD groups differed from the control group on two Scale A (static/ predictable environment) (fastens buttons and forms letters with pencil or pen) and on three Scale C (non-motor, movement-related) (distractibility, overactive, and underestimates own ability) items; but only OWL LD differed from control on Scale B (dynamic/unpredictable) items. Applications of findings to assessment and instruction for students ascertained for and diagnosed with persisting SLDs in literacy learning, and future research directions are discussed.
Nielsen, KathleenHenderson, SheilaBarnett, Anna L.Abbott, Robert D.Berninger, Virginia
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences\Department of Psychology, Health and Professional Development
Year of publication: 2018Date of RADAR deposit: 2018-03-02