Journal Article

Symptom experiences in hypertension: A mixed methods systematic review


Aim. Blood pressure guidelines have undergone multiple revisions in accordance with updated science. Understanding patients’ hypertension symptoms can assist healthcare professionals’ awareness of individual, cultural, and behavioural responses and improve diagnostic accuracy to optimize treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate and synthesize current literature exploring symptoms experienced by patients with hypertension.  Methods.  Databases searched included MEDLINE® (PubMed®), CINAHL® (EBSCO), Scopus, and Web of Science™ from January 2010 to January 2022 for studies with reported hypertension symptoms.  The search followed the PRISMA guidelines.  The McMaster critical review forms were used to determine quality of both qualitative and quantitative articles. Synthesis of the data was guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute Convergent Integrated Approach to Mixed Study Systematic Reviews.  Results. Forty-one articles were included in the review, including nine qualitative studies and thirty-two quantitative.  Quality of the articles varied. Symptoms included commonly reported symptoms and some less prevalent, including some reporting absence of symptoms. Factors that affected symptoms included culture, beliefs, psychosocial factors and knowledge. We also found that there may be a bidirectional relationship with symptoms and behaviours that may lead to self-management.  Conclusion. Hypertension is common and symptoms are frequently reported. Hypertension management is related to multiple factors. Symptoms continue in a number of individuals after initial diagnosis. Evaluating symptoms after initial diagnosis may help to optimally manage and meet BP guidelines. 

Attached files


Horne, Carolyn E.
Stayt, Louise C.
Schutz, Susan
Smith, Christopher M.
Haberstroh, Amanda
Bolin, Linda P.
Taylor, Catherine L.
Moosavi, Shakeeb H.
Bibbey, Adam

Oxford Brookes departments

Oxford School of Nursing and Midwifery
Department of Sport, Health Sciences and Social Work
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences


Year of publication: 2022
Date of RADAR deposit: 2022-09-13

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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