Conference Paper

Energy and thermal performance of apartment buildings in Albania: the case of a post-communist country


This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of the energy and thermal performance of apartment buildings in Albania built both Pre-90 and Post-91 (a year that marks the change of the political system from communism to democracy in Albania). Building surveys, occupant surveys and continuous monitoring of outdoor and indoor environmental conditions during the summer and winter to allow for seasonal variations, were conducted in 29 case study flats randomly selected to represent both periods. Electricity bills were also provided for a full year. It was found that electricity consumption has been 22% lower in flats built Pre-90 and that the average temperature in living rooms were found to be very close to 29°C in summer and 16°C in winter in both Pre-90 and Post-91. Notwithstanding that measured average temperatures were similar in the two building cohorts, higher range and variance on mean indoor temperature has been found in summer in the flats built Pre-90, which has affected the thermal sensation votes of occupants living in them. It was found that over 60% of residents living in apartment buildings built Pre-90 were feeling cold in winter and hot in summer, compared to 30-40% of residents living in apartment buildings built Post-91, who felt cold in winter and hot in summer respectively. Although the findings cannot be treated as statistical generalization, the analysis provides an in-depth contextual insight into environmental, thermal and energy performances of flats in Albania, which would help inform future energy retrofitting programmes.

Attached files


Murataj, Jonida
Gupta, Rajat
Nicol, Fergus

Oxford Brookes departments

Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment\School of Architecture


Year of publication: 2018
Date of RADAR deposit: 2018-05-02


  • Owner: Joseph Ripp
  • Collection: Outputs
  • Version: 1 (show all)
  • Status: Live
  • Views (since Sept 2022): 206