Journal Article


Evaluation of residential demand response trials with smart heat pumps and batteries and their effect at the substation feeder

Abstract

Residential demand response using low carbon technologies can potentially offer energy flexibility to the electricity network along with integration of renewable generation. This paper seeks to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of residential demand response trials on a low voltage feeder of a secondary substation in Barnsley (UK). The study used a sample of 14 well-insulated dwellings equipped with home batteries, heat pumps and solar photovoltaic systems coordinated using automated control. Statistical analysis was undertaken using time-series monitoring data obtained at the individual dwelling level, dwelling sample and at the feeder level of the local low voltage network. Resident experience of the trials was assessed through qualitative data obtained from household telephone surveys. Over three weeks of trials, daily demand response interventions of 2 h duration were applied to the sample of 14 dwellings. For evening peak times, the mean reduction in grid electricity import was found to be 1.3 kWh (67%) per dwelling for turn-down interventions which aimed to minimise import. For turn-up interventions between 1 and 3 pm, the mean increase in grid electricity import was found to be 5.8 kWh (645%) per dwelling. The effect of interventions was measured at the low voltage network level for two single-phase feeders, where penetration of trial homes was approximately one-third. A reduction in mean real power up to 21% was observed for turn-down interventions as well as an increase in real mean power up to 307% for turn-up interventions. In general, the trials had little effect on residents in terms of thermal comfort, hot water availability, noise disturbance or disruption to routines, and where such effects were noticed, they were broadly acceptable. The widespread implementation of residential demand response schemes will require increased roll-out of time-of-use tariffs, enhanced resident support and extensive monitoring of low voltage feeders in electricity substations.

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Authors

Gupta, Rajat
Morey, Johanna

Oxford Brookes departments

School of Architecture

Dates

Year of publication: 2023
Date of RADAR deposit: 2023-03-10


Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


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