Journal Article

Flower visitation time and number of visitor species are reduced by the use of agrochemicals in coffee home gardens


Pollination services, from both wild and managed populations of insect pollinators, have degraded as a result of agricultural intensification. Whilst 75% of economically important crops depend on insect pollinators for cultivation, 40% of insect pollinator species are threatened with extinction. Pollination services must be preserved if there is to be enough food for a global population whose demand is expected to double, if not triple, by 2050. Pollinator diversity and pollinator efficiency have been found to increase as a result of wildlife-friendly farming practices (i.e., natural chemicals and fertilizers and agroforestry). We evaluated the presence of insect pollinators in 42 coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia. Via generalized linear mixed models, we found that number of visitor species (β = 0.418 ± SE 0.194, p = 0.031) and visitation time (β = 0.845 ± SE 0.308, p = 0.006) decreased as farms were more intensely managed, (i.e., used chemical pesticides), compared to fields using organic practices. As knowledge of pollination services is widespread amongst smallholder farmers in Indonesia and beyond due to the long-held tradition of beekeeping, these results will add to their existing knowledge and empower farmers to enhance resources for pollinator species through agroforestry and natural pest management. Although we found significant differences in pollination services provided in intensely managed and wildlife-friendly farms, chemical use can affect farms far beyond a particular area of production. Therefore, pollinator conservation must be applied at a landscape level and involve all stakeholders, including farmers, when making effective policies.

Attached files


Manson, Sophie
Nekaris, K.A.I.
Hedger, Katherine
Balestri, Michela
Ahmad, Nabil
Adinda, Esther
Budiadi Budiadi
Imron, Muhammad Ali
Nijman, Vincent
Campera, Marco

Oxford Brookes departments

Department of Social Sciences


Year of publication: 2022
Date of RADAR deposit: 2022-02-18

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

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