This systematic review deliberately included studies with diverse methodologies in order to establish the general applicability of a constraint-effects-mitigation involvement loyalty model, a status which has only been indirectly accorded to it within the literature to date. Studies conducted between 1987 and the present covering 27 papers in several different settings consistently demonstrated that leisure involvement can necessitate negotiation strategies to allow individuals to form loyalty to people, leisure activities and places, whilst still facing a myriad of constraints at any given time.
This thesis examines young people's opportunities to participate in organised outdoor
activities. It is set within a context of changing leisure interests, a growth in private
sector leisure provision, and increasing emphasis on consumer choice. It argues that
whilst, in principle, there is widespread support for young people's participation in
outdoor activities, in practice, opportunities are becoming increasingly limited. The
study aims to examine the nature of outdoor facilities, to determine their use by
young people, to identify changes occurring within the outdoor sector, and to
consider the changes in relation to young people's access to the outdoors.
The empirical research focuses~ on outdoor activity centres, in acknowledgement that
the residential experience offered by such centres can contribute to the social and
personal development of young people. It also focuses on the National Parks of
England and Wales. These areas possess a wealth of natural resources suitable for a
wide range of outdoor ac…
It is widely accepted that the loss of sex hormones after the menopause is strongly linked with cancer, insulin resistance and obesity, with variations in sex hormone concentrations being responsible in part, for the differences reported in energy metabolism and glycaemic control between genders. As such a greater understanding of the effects that oestrogen and progesterone may have on women's health and their potential long term consequences is required. This thesis reports evidence of three studies investigating the effects of oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle on glucose and insulin response, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
The aim of the first study was to investigate glucose and insulin responses to a 75g glucose load during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Venous blood samples for baseline measurements of oestradiol and progesterone were collected every other week day from eighteen regularly menstruating women for one complete menstrul…
This article focuses on the life history of a university academic, and the ways in which he learned in different communities of practice during his career. This account raises questions about the applicability of Lave and Wenger’s (1991) theory to a knowledge-based organisation, and argues that both the external context and the individuals within the community impinge on learning. It suggests that the role of academic staff developers may vary depending on the CoP and should include developing networks, facilitation, providing relevant expertise, improving harmony within CoPs and harnessing the benefits of internationally dispersed CoPs.
Innovation is essential for the sustainability and competitiveness of destinations.
Mature cold-water destinations face particular challenges when innovating to revitalise. This paper
examines the context of these destinations in terms of their demand and supply side characteristics and
goes on to analyse this context in terms of its ability to promote or hinder innovation. Success factors
are identifi ed which include the need for a champion, a whole of destination approach and adequate
fi nancing for revitalisation. Finally the paper analyses resort contexts for innovation in terms of their
stakeholder landscape, network analysis and communities of practice.
The quality of wheat-based food. products, especially bread quality, is
significantly affected by the characteristics of the wheat flour, both in term of
processing quality and nutritional value. White flour, by far the most used flour
in breadmaking, derives from grinding of the grain starchy endosperm. Several
studies have demonstrated that the endosperm tissue shows significant
inhomogeneity in its chemical composition, with both quantitative and qualitative
patterns of tissue distribution observed for all its main storage components.
This project has focused on a detailed study of the spatial distributions of
proteins and starch within the wheat endosperm, how they are influenced by
genetic and environmental factors and how they affect the processing
properties of the flour. Multiple technologies, including protein/starch chemistry,
immunocytochemistry and microscopy, have been used to achieve the research
The results show a clear deceasing gradient in total protein in the endosperm
from the subaleu…
Many small, numerically abundant animals of low trophic position exhibit
polymorphisms for colour and pattern. This variation is assumed to be adaptive and
maintained by frequency-dependent selection, the fitness of phenotypes being
negatively correlated with their frequency in the population.
Noctua pronuba is an abundant moth species of the western Palaearctic and is now
established in north eastern America. When the moth is at rest it is apparently
cryptically coloured with the visible surfaces polymorphic in colour and pattern. The
limitation of this variation to the exposed surfaces of the moth suggests that the
variation may be maintained by visual selection by predators.
The forewing polymorphism in N.pronuba can be split into three distinct phenotypes:
rufous, ochre and silver, with the variation probably controlled by a single locus, with
three alleles in a dominance hierarchy. The expression of these alleles is
influenced by sex with females lighter in colour than males. The aim of this work
was to …
There is a growing literature suggesting that the classifications in arts and culture are transforming. ‘Cultural opening’ thesis suggests that the boundaries of established arts are becoming more permeable; allowing the emerging art/culture forms to take their place in the higher ranks. In line with this thesis, a number of researchers point out the rise of culturally ‘omnivore’ evaluative repertories. Drawing on the analysis of a data set (N=13,161) comprised of the cultural coverage of major newspapers from six European countries from 1960 to 2010, this research questions: How are art and culture news distributed in terms of their field? Is there a gradual change with respect to the journalistic attention paid to established vs. emergent fields? Can we identify a change within the genre hierarchy operating in a given cultural form (i.e. classical music vs. pop music)? The findings suggest that in the European context, cultural omnivore thesis has more explanatory power than the cultural opening thesis. Com…
English land registration law is a work in progress. There remain important unresolved issues concerning the conceptual building blocks used in the Land Registration Act 2002. This article focusses on rights to correct the land register. It considers the place of such rights in the ordering of estates, interests, rights and equities; and makes proposals about the characteristics of these rights so as to produce an integrated, coherent regime which combines the blunt rule for the passing of property with a sophisticated remedial regime for its recovery. Having analysed the right to rectify, it concludes that the right to rectify shares such similarities with the ‘mere equity’ that this classification makes sense in explaining the current law. In terms of policy, however, this classification is inappropriate and reform is required. Potential options for such reform are considered.
This article addresses the question of ‘the left’ in contemporary South Africa in two senses: first, in terms of assessing the health of leftist politics; second, it asks to what extent are the self-identified left progressive in any meaningful sense. The first half of this article reflects on the current development situation in South Africa. Here, it is argued that within most sections of the South African left, there is broad agreement on the need to address the triple challenge of unemployment, rising inequality and poverty. The second half of this article identifies three broad sections to the contemporary left in South Africa (the Tripartite Alliance, the left outside the Alliance and the remnants of the revolutionary socialist left). It argues that the left within the Alliance, despite the launch of the New Growth Path, are failing to implement the sufficiently radical policy changes that are required to address the development challenges identified in the first half of this article. The left outside t…