This project is in the area of “Computational Biology” or “Systems Biology”. Mathe-matical modelling is a method to study a biological system using computer-aided tools. A mathematical model of any biological system consists of a set of biochemical (or other) reactions – complete with reaction mechanisms, substrate, product, and e˙ector concentrations, enzyme activities etc., specific to the system. Such models utilize relevant experimental data as parameters and/or variables in the reaction equations.
In heart, mitochondrial energy metabolism involving utilization of dietary carbo-hydrates and fats bears a crucial importance for the normal physiological function of the cardiac muscle. The mammalian liver-specific tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) model developed within the Cell Systems Modelling Group (CSMG) was used to study and understand the basic functional properties of a tissue-specific TCA cycle model system and to form a knowledge base. Based on this knowledge, we successfully constructed a mammalian h…
This thesis comprises a systematic review and an intervention study. The systematic review included a meta-analysis and investigated treatment methods for fatigue. Fourteen studies (n=1890) were included in the systematic review and results from the meta-analyses (mean difference -0.25; CI -0.67:0.16; z-score 1.20 and mean difference -0.36; CI -0.78:0.06; z-score 1.67) concluded that currently there are no effective methods for the treatment of fatigue in people with Parkinson’s disease.
The intervention study (n=105; intervention group: n=54; control group: n=51) comprised three parts. In the first part different measures of fatigue were explored in relation to activity levels and exercise tolerance. The second part investigated the adherence to the community based six-month exercise programme. The final part of the main study explored the effects of the exercise programme in a single blinded randomised controlled trial.
In the first part of the main study significant negative correlations were found betwee…
Domestic service was a major source of employment in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but has only in recent years been the subject of serious historical research. Child servants represented a rather small cohort of this sector but formed a significant section of the total child labour force. This thesis gives new attention to these youngest household workers and a ‘voice’ to many children hitherto ‘hidden from history.’ Recent studies of children working in factories have challenged many assumptions about child workers but indicate that they were, in general, favoured by employers because they were cheap, tractable and could be adapted to techniques and methods of organisation which adults resisted. This study shows that the decision to take a child into employment in domestic service was a more complex and individual matter. Cheapness and ease of exploitation had attractions for some masters, but the need for companionship or conveying a particular household image could also influence decisions. Prev…
This thesis investigates selected seventeenth century writings from England and New England to explore the varying significances afforded to the Biblical figure of Adam in theories of the polity. It notes the strong impulse in this period of political upheaval to find foundations and patterns for the polity by returning to the original of Adam’s existence in the Garden of Eden as recorded in Genesis and reinterpreted in Christian tradition. An overview of the times and their political and religious order identifies contemporary preoccupations – legitimacy of sovereignty, security of person and property, freedom of religious conscience, direction of history, expansion to new parts of the world and encounters with new people – that coloured interpretations and political applications of Adam. Against this background, the thesis presents contemporary conversations in which interpretations of Adam played a significant part, proposing a categorisation of Adam as state (the pattern and condition of man and polity) a…
This thesis examines the role and importance of religion and religious reform in the
Westminster workhouses and how it developed throughout the eighteenth century.
Tim Hitchcock argued in 1992 that the SPCK, an Anglican reforming society, was
largely responsible for the parochial workhouse movement in the early eighteenth
century, viewing these institutions as a tool through which to reform society by
instilling piety into the poor. Consequently, he concluded that these workhouses were
established with the principal intention of religiously reforming paupers. This has yet
to be substantially followed up. Significantly, apart from this work, very little of
which has been published, religion has largely been omitted from histories of the
workhouse and welfare more generally. However, if we accept J.C.D Clark's call for a
re-enchantment of the eighteenth century and his argument that society remained
deeply religious, the workhouse as a product of this society should not be viewed
without religion. A number of h…
This thesis argues that the increasing visibility of Catholics and Catholicism in nineteenth century England and Wales reduced the prejudice against them and their religion; that they developed an identity which was incontrovertibly English in spite of the absorption of a very large number of Irish migrants; and that by the end of the century their allegiance to the nation was no longer suspect.
Visibility was expressed in three forms. New churches were built throughout the country in every county in England and Wales. Many of these locations had no knowledge or experience of Catholicism since the Reformation. Myriad difficulties were faced, and overcome, chief amongst which was the institutional poverty of the Church. This thesis will show how this was done and the support given to this project by the Irish migrants.
A second form of visibility was the re-introduction of Catholic cultural practices such as processions. These often became significant events in towns as disparate as Preston, where Cat…
In order to better understand veganism in the UK from an anthropological perspective, this study aims to:
-Explore the experiences of Oxford based vegan groups and their attitudes towards activism.
-Evaluate the role of trans-biopolitics in constructing vegan ideologies.
Coaching supervision is an emerging profession with a need of developing its knowledge base. However, there is a lack of understanding of the supervision process from the coaching supervisees’ perspective, a crucial element without which issues and debates about coaching supervision are incomplete. Furthermore, although most of the professional bodies that represent coaches in the UK require coaches to have supervision, they do not provide clear guidelines on how supervisee’s can use supervision effectively. This study aims to fill that gap, providing empirical evidence on how supervisees can help and hinder their supervision.
A qualitative study was conducted, based on semi-structured interviews with nineteen participants – twelve supervisees and seven supervisors to gather data about participants’ lived-in experiences of coaching supervision. Critical realist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the findings, to describe the underlying psychological and social structures that are a condition for valuable co…
Our understanding of ionizing radiation and its associated biological effects has recently under- gone a paradigm shift from a DNA-centric model to one inclusive of non-targeted effects (NTE), so called for the lack of direct radiation interaction with DNA. Two effects encompassed within the NTE paradigm are termed genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE). GI can be described as an increase in rate of genetic alterations many cell generations after the initial radi- ation exposure. BE can be defined as the manifestation of radiation like effects in un-irradiated cells that have communicated with cells that have been irradiated either through inter-signalling utilising gap junctions or the secretion of a soluble diffusion signalling factor.
The exact mechanisms that underlie these processes are still under investigation but a wealth of evidence suggests that a number of mechanisms are involved. These include; cytokine signalling, oxidative stress, inflammation and sub-cellular alterations, in addit…
Background: Alcohol misuse is associated with a number of health risks and harms that may be particularly detrimental to adolescents. Existing interventions for which there is evidence of effectiveness are time and cost intensive. Brief interventions or classroom delivered programmes are often ineffective, possibly due to their basis in rational models of behaviour. Young people’s risk taking behaviour may be better understood from a dual process perspective, which assumes two routes to behaviour; one rational and planned, the other a faster, reactive and spontaneous route. The Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) assumes that for adolescents, reactive behaviour is a result of the contemplation of ‘prototypes’ or widely held social images about the type of person who engages in a risk behaviour. Evaluation of these prototypes influences ‘willingness’ or an openness to the opportunity to engage a specific behaviour through a process of social comparison.
Aim: The PWM has been applied to numerous risk behav…