This paper proposes a new biologically-inspired phenomenological model of insulin release that can be used to continuously monitor a person with diabetes and therefore recommend insulin dose and predict events. Given all the parameters and conditions that have to be met in order to achieve stability, the proposed insulin-release system will be considered as highly non-linear and dynamical. The resulting model will study the mechanisms that keep the system from reaching a chaotic state (diabetes), based on the property of self-organised criticality. This property was selected since it has been previously identified and studied in other dynamical biological systems. The proposed model will then be used as part of a model-based reasoning system that aims to support patients with diabetes.
To understand the factors influencing parental attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing.
Background. Overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has resulted in rapid development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and is significant global threat to patient safety. In Primary Care settings, substantial numbers of antibiotics are prescribed for young children, despite viral nature of illness for which antibiotics are ineffective. Parents, play a vital role in decision making regarding accessing healthcare services and requesting treatment for their children.
Design. A systematic review was conducted in alignment with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement (Moher et al 2015).
Methods. The CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, BRITISH NURSING INDEX, EMBASE and PUBMED databases were searched for primary research published between 2006-16. All types of primary research were searched and screened against inclusion criteria. The Critical App…
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the UK, with 46 690 new cases in 2014. While there is sufficient research on this topic in the USA, there is no review in the UK regarding both black men and their significant others' perspective on prostate cancer screening.
To identify and explore factors that may influence black men and their significant others' knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer screening.
A literature search revealed seven relevant articles.
Six of the seven articles were conducted in the USA. The results are described using four themes: perception of prostate cancer screening, fear, anxiety and discomfort, misinformation about prostate cancer screening procedures and communication and decision-making.
The evidence suggests that some black men and their significant others had knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer screening. However, their views were influenced by misperceptions, misinformation, fear and anxiety around screen…
This paper presents the methodological approach and findings of a simulation study of advanced energy conservation, generation and management technologies applied to two case study dwellings in the UK, so as to achieve net zero energy (NZE) target that includes a reduction of net regulated energy (HVAC) to 0kWh/m2 per year and energy generation of at least 50 kWh/m2 per year. The performance of the dwellings are also tested for a change in energy use and risk of summertime overheating in future climates in the short (2030s), medium (2050s) and long term (2080s).
The findings indicate that to meet the NZE targets, regulated loads need to reduce by about half (over current Building Regulations) with community (rather than building-level) renewables playing a major role. It is also found that the NZE targets, given current regulations, are not particularly difficult to achieve in design with regard to energy efficiency but are highly expectant with regard to renewable energy. Further, summertime overheating is p…
Purpose: This study investigated how presence of other customers in restaurant social settings becomes a resource (referred to as “customer-to-customer interaction” or “C2CI”) to co-create an escape dining experience and stimulate dining outcomes, namely, food attachment and dining frequency. The relationships are further tested under the effects of regional economic conditions.
Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected by using a multi-step approach. The first dataset was obtained through a personally administered survey, which included a sample of 356 Chinese tourists who dined at fine Western (i.e., Portuguese) restaurants in Macau. The second dataset concerned economic statistics and was obtained from the statistics departments of mainland China and Taiwan. A multilevel design with hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the proposed model. Multilevel mediating and moderating effects were also examined.
Findings: Results suggest that customer escape dining experience significantly mediated th…
Due to the nocturnal and arboreal nature of nocturnal prosimians field research on these species is limited. Maintaining populations in zoos provides an opportunity to increase our knowledge of these elusive species. This study aimed to update and contribute to the limited research on captive populations of nocturnal prosimians. The study consists of two parts. Part one aimed to identify the current European captive population of six nocturnal prosimian species (aye-aye, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, Goodman’s mouse lemur, grey mouse lemur, grey slender loris and pygmy slow loris) and determine their demographic self-sustainability. To achieve this aim studbook data was analysed. The difference between birth and death rates, infant mortality rates, age structure and sex composition were investigated. The study concludes populations of aye-aye, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, grey slender loris and pygmy slow loris were not self-sustaining whereas Goodman’s mouse lemur are self-sustaining and grey mouse lemur were found to …
This article provides a new insight into knowledge-based management of mega-events by highlighting the significance of weather at destination selection and scheduling events as an adaptive strategy toward climate change. Concerning the environmental and socio-economic costs of weather ignorance in event management, which may result in cancelation and change of the event time, it is recommended that planners perform a preliminary study prior to publicizing an event plan. Doing so, the organizer and visitors can benefit from optimal weather at the destination, as this study advises the decision-makers of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games to reschedule the dates of this international event.
Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries need adequate energy to achieve socio-economic growth and
development. According to recent statistics, only 30 per cent of the entire population have access
to power, making the region the highest in the world with people without access to electricity. This
is in sharp contrast with the abundant energy resources available, which could be harnessed to
provide the needed energy. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the determinants of
aggregate energy demand in SSA. Reliable secondary macroeconomic and energy data were
collected from publicly available and widely used databases. The study uses a panel cointegration
technique to examine the determinants of energy demand in SSA, over the period 1980 to 2014, for
selected countries in the region. Our results reveal that income is the predominant factor behind the
increase in energy demand in SSA, with the highest elasticity. Further, energy demand in SSA
conforms to a priori expectations of a negative price elast…
We develop a Bayesian semiparametric method to estimate a time-varying parameter regression model with stochastic volatility, where both the error distributions of the observations and parameter-driven dynamics are unspecified. We illustrate our methodology with an application to inflation.