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Combustion and particulated matter formation in modern GDI engines: a modelling study using CFD

Modern GDI engines are efficient power platforms, but produce large quantities of ultra-fine soot particles. Fuel mal-distribution and, in some cases, liquid fuel film are commonly addressed as the primary causes of particulate matter formation. Multi-dimensional engine modelling can be used effectively to gain an improved understanding of the in-cylinder processes leading to particulate matter. The work presented here investigates soot mechanisms in a modern wall-guided GDI engine using commercial CFD software Star-CD. Two part-load operating conditions are investigated, 2300 rev/min - 60 Nm, and 2300 rev/min - 120 Nm. The multi-stage semi-empirical Soot Sectional Method is used to simulate the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms leading to soot emissions. The results of the simulations show better mixture preparation in the high load case, mostly on account of enhanced fuel atomisation and stronger mixing. The lower load case features wider mixture stratification, with a more confined, lower tempe…

Authors: Bonatesta, F;Hopkins, E;Francavilla, C;Bell, D;La Rocca, A
Type: Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 15:09
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Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in Huntington’s disease? Results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial

Background: Self-management and self-efficacy for physical activity is not routinely considered in neurologic rehabilitation. Objective: We assessed feasibility and outcomes of a 14 week physical activity self-management and coaching intervention compared with social contact in Huntington's disease (HD) to inform the design of a future full-scale trial. Design: Assessor blind, multi-site, randomized pilot feasibility trial. Setting: Participants were recruited and assessed at baseline, 16 weeks following randomisation, and then again at 26 weeks in HD specialist clinics with intervention delivery by trained coaches in the participants’ homes. Patients and Intervention: People with HD were allocated to the ENGAGE-HD physical activity coaching intervention or a social interaction intervention. Measurements: Eligibility, recruitment, retention and intervention adherence were determined at 16 weeks. Other outcomes of interest included measures of functional, home and community mobility, self-efficacy, phys…

Authors: Busse, M;Quinn, L;Drew, C;Kelson, M;Trubey, R;McEwan, K;Jones, C;Townson, J;Dawes, H;Edwards, RT;Rosser, A;Hood, K
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 15:07
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Lifting the gloomy curtain of time past: tracing the identity of the first cognitively modern hominin in deep history

Authors: Smith, S;Underdown, S
Type: Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 15:02
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Was not Brought - Take note! Think Child! Take Action!

Editorial

Authors: Appleton, JV;Sidebotham, P
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 15:01
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"The situation over there really bothers me": Ronald Reagan and the Northern Ireland Conflict.'

A neglected area of transatlantic history is the relationship between the Reagan administration and the Northern Ireland conflict. This article will seek to address this situation by charting the extent of Ronald Reagan’s interest in the issue and the ways and means that other protagonists sought to secure and prevent his involvement. It will examine the president’s approach in the context of different views in his administration, the State Department’s desire to maintain American neutrality on the issue, and the desire of leading Irish-American politicians for the American government to be far more interventionist. Thus, Reagan’s contribution to the Anglo-Irish process encapsulates a variety of interlinking fields of research: the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland during the 1980s; the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement; and the internationalisation of the conflict before the advent of President Bill Clinton in 1993.

Authors: Cooper, J
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:58
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Dispersal of a Human-Cultivated Crop by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a Forest-Farm Matrix

With the conversion of natural habitats to farmland, nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) are increasingly exposed to agricultural crops. Although frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers that sometimes feed on agricultural fruits, evidence for dispersal of crops by primates is lacking. Here, we examine flexible feeding on cacao (Theobroma cacao) fruit and seed dispersal patterns by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, and consequent cacao germination and survival. From direct observations, we confirm that cacao fruit is not an important food to chimpanzees, representing 0.23 % of focal animal feeding time. Chimpanzees ingest cacao pulp and either spit out the large seeds intact from unripe cacao fruit or swallow the seeds from ripe cacao fruits, which are consequently deposited in feces. From ecological surveys we show that chimpanzees distributed cacao extensively throughout their home range, at a mean distance of 407 m ± SE 0.6 (N = 90 clusters, range: 4–1130 m) from cacao p…

Authors: Hockings, KJ;Yamakoshi, G;Matsuzawa, T
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:53
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ATAD3 gene cluster deletions cause cerebellar dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial DNA and cholesterol metabolism

Although mitochondrial disorders are clinically heterogeneous, they frequently involve the central nervous system and are among the most common neurogenetic disorders. Identifying the causal genes has benefited enormously from advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies; however, once the defect is known, researchers face the challenge of deciphering the underlying disease mechanism. Here we characterize large biallelic deletions in the region encoding the ATAD3C, ATAD3B and ATAD3A genes. Although high homology complicates genomic analysis of the ATAD3 defects, they can be identified by targeted analysis of standard single nucleotide polymorphism array and whole exome sequencing data. We report deletions that generate chimeric ATAD3B/ATAD3A fusion genes in individuals from four unrelated families with fatal congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia, whereas a case with genomic rearrangements affecting the ATAD3C/ATAD3B genes on one allele and ATAD3B/ATAD3A genes on the other displays later-onset encephalo…

Authors: Desai, R;Frazier, AE;Durigon, R;Patel, H;Jones, AW;Dalla Rosa, I;Lake, NJ;Compton, AG;Mountford, HS;Tucker, EJ;Mitchell, ALR;Jackson, D;Sesay, A;di Re, M;van den Heuvel, LP;Burke, D;Francis, D;Lunke, S;McGillivray, G;Mandelstam, S;Mochel, F;Keren, B;Jardel, C;Turner, AM;Ian Andrews, P;Smeitink, J;Spelbrink, JN;Heales, SJ;Kohda, M;Ohtake, A;Murayama, K;O...
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:50
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Comparative building performance evaluation of a ‘sustainable’ community centre and a public library building

This paper uses a forensic building performance evaluation approach to undertake a comparative evaluation of the in-use energy and environmental performance data (collected over two years) of two civic buildings located in Southeast England – a small community centre (<1000m2) and a medium-sized public library building (~4500m2), which are designed to high sustainability standards (EPC A rating) and low heating demand met by on-site low/zero carbon technologies. Although both buildings achieved measured air-permeability rates of ~5m3/hr.m2, they encountered similar issues related to poor documentation of ‘as-built’ drawings, poor handover and guidance, problems with integrating and maintaining new technologies (heat pumps, biomass boilers and solar thermal), lack of calibration of sub-meters, and issues with automatic window controls. However the actual carbon emissions of the community centre are double the predicted, while they are almost five times in the case of library building. This is because the commu…

Authors: Gupta, R;Kapsali, M;Gregg, M
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:47
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Men’s Constructions of Mothering: Growing Up in Father-Absent Families

The purpose of this article is to consider adult men’s retrospective constructions of mothering and growing up in father-absent households. An exploratory qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was utilised and interviews were conducted with 21 adult men. Collected data were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis. Findings revealed memories of loss and missed opportunities, poverty and disadvantage. Men recollected their mothers attempting to balance their physical and financial security with their emotional needs. Findings from this study suggest that men who experience father absence from an early age can experience an ongoing sense of loss and disadvantage that may be carried throughout life. We recommend this population of men be provided with opportunities to disclose feelings about their experiences as father-absent boys when coming into contact with health and social services.

Authors: East, L;Hutchinson, M;Power, T;Jackson, D
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:42
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Associations between Mobility, Cognition, and Brain Structure in Healthy Older Adults

Mobility limitations lead to a cascade of adverse events in old age, yet the neural and cognitive correlates of mobility performance in older adults remain poorly understood. In a sample of 387 adults (mean age 69.0 ± 5.1 years), we tested the relationship between mobility measures, cognitive assessments, and MRI markers of brain structure. Mobility was assessed in 2007–2009, using gait, balance and chair-stands tests. In 2012–2015, cognitive testing assessed executive function, memory and processing-speed; gray matter volumes (GMV) were examined using voxel-based morphometry, and white matter microstructure was assessed using tract-based spatial statistics of fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). All mobility measures were positively associated with processing-speed. Faster walking speed was also correlated with higher executive function, while memory was not associated with any mobility measure. Increased GMV within the cerebellum, basal ganglia, post-central gyrus, and…

Authors: Demnitz, N;Zsoldos, E;Mahmood, A;Mackay, CE;Kivimaki, M;Singh-Manoux, A;Dawes, H;Johansen-Berg, H;Ebmeier, KP;Sexton, CE
Type: Journal Article/Review
Status: Live|Last updated:28 June 2017 14:41
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