This article proposes a structural framework for the joint estimation of tourists’ daily personal expenditures (intensity) and length of stay (extensity). We reconceptualize commonly accepted exogeneous determinants of both outcomes into a set of exogenous antecedents pre-existing the travel decision and a set of endogenous mediators that capture the role of market exchange after the travel decision and corresponding choices are made. Findings reveal that the effects of some exogenous factors, such as gender, income, and motives on total spending are fully mediated within the intensity and extensity components, absent of any direct impacts. Other factors, such as nationality, appear not to influence spending due to offsetting mediated effects. As these forces are difficult to discern via reduced-form modeling, the proposed structural framework provides tourism managers with deeper insight into the footprints of established expenditure determinants, potentially improving upon the efficacy of marketing strategi…
City Information Modelling (CIM) is a new approach which merges existing digital technologies for urban and building management. Its application is still in its infancy, as well as its potential has been not yet fully exploited. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a novel application of CIM to a pilot case study providing fresh insights on how CIM technologies can be applied in urban areas where inconsistency of data may challenge the implementation of digital technologies. The novelty of the method stems from a mixed methodology, which integrates knowledge and technical expertise on CIM and social science thus providing a basis for building community resilience. The case of Al Baqa’ has been chosen, as paradigmatic example of a challenging urban context, as it was originally a Palestinian refugees’ camp, and evolved over time into a dense development of mainly two-story concrete buildings. High population density in the area impacts on
the environment in terms of pollution, shortage of servic…
ASD 2 Materials
The offshore wind farm (OWF) industry is of growing importance, particularly in Europe. However, the local socio-economic impacts of OWF projects have received little attention compared with biophysical impacts. Yet, they have the potential to be significant for the regeneration of declining coastal communities. Drawing on findings from academic and industry literature, from a review of ESs (Environmental Statements) for OWFs and from particular case studies, the paper found differential coverage of social and economic impacts, and differences between predicted and actual impacts, by stage in project life. For example, the ES predictions substantially overestimated local offshore construction stage economic impacts, but underestimated other elements of the OWF lifecycle, including onshore construction, and especially the 20-25 years of the operation and management stage. The Aberdeen (Scotland) case study showed the importance of the engagement strategy of the developer. Drawing on the major Hornsea projects,…
The plight of Vietnamese migrants in the UK has featured prominently in recent media and public policy debates on modern slavery, illegal border crossings, and labour exploitation. Yet little attention has been paid to their subjective experiences of border crossings, nor the wide range of categories they pass between. Vietnamese migrants coming to the UK in search of work face a complex array of decisions surrounding the respective costs and risks related to a chosen migration route which must be weighed against personal and collective expectations. These complex decisions are compounded by a shifting and highly stratified immigration and borders regime which renders migrants more vulnerable through restricting rights and increasing surveillance. This chapter explores the experiences and imaginaries of the UK border among migrants who have crossed the UK border, as well as those who intend to make the journey. We explore the contrast between the expectations and realities of UK borders through in-depth inter…
This paper investigates the connections between harmonious cultural values, pro-environmental self-identity and consumers’ sustainable consumption behaviours spanning acquisition, usage and disposal. It evaluates the relevance of Chinese cultural values that purport harmony between humans, nature and society i.e. man-nature orientation and horizontal/vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism. The results from the online survey with 503 urbanised Chinese reveals these values disparately influence this consumption. Despite the limited direct behavioural effect of these harmonious values, pro-environmental self-identity plays an important role in mediating their indirect effects on the five behaviours. This paper therefore extends theorisation of the values-identity-behaviour relationship from a cultural-values orientation perspective. It offers new insights to understand urbanised Chinese consumers sustainable consumption behaviours.
—The paper examines the profound impact on the forecasted system reliability when
one assumes average reliabilities on demand for components of various kinds but of the same
type. In this paper, we use reverse engineering of a novel algebraic inequality to demonstrate
that the prevalent practice of using average reliability on demand for components of the same
type but different varieties to calculate system reliability on demand is fundamentally flawed.
This approach can introduce significant errors due to the innate variability of components
within a given type.
Additionally, the paper illustrates the optimization of engineering processes using reverse
engineering of sub-additive algebraic inequalities based on concave power laws. Employing
reverse engineering on these sub-additive inequalities has paved the way for strategies that
enhance the performance of diverse industrial processes. The primary advantage of these subadditive inequalities lies in their simplicity, rendering them particularly suitable fo…
Aims: To gain insight and understanding into the workplace experiences of nurses living with mental illness (independent of their work) through exploring the relevant literature.
Objectives: (1) To learn what unique contribution (negative or positive) they have for the profession.
(2) To review this literature as a means of optimising the nurses’ ability to perform their nursing duties when their mental illness necessitates additional support.